Arduino Based Line Follower Robot & Its application

3 min readJul 17, 2021


What is a Line Follower Robot?

As the title suggests, the line followers robot follows the lines to perform the task. It is a very simple version of a robot pursuing only either the white lines or the black lines. These types of robots are very easy and perfect options for beginners who want to start with Robotics. Line Follower Robots are segmented into two versions: White line followers and Black Line Followers. White line followers robot follow the white lines and Black Line Followers robot follow the black lines. Though The idea is a very unarduous easy-going task, with a little more development, robots similar to this are practically used in many applications like factory floor management robots or warehouse robots.

Concept of Line Follower Robot

The working concept of the Line Follower robot is connected to light. Here, The lights are used as a medium and the behaviour of light is used at the black and white surfaces. When the light falls on white surfaces it is totally reflected and when the light falls on black surfaces then in this case it is completely absorbed. Thus, the behaviour of light plays an important and chief role to build up a follower Robot.

While building up the Arduino based Line Follower Robot, the IR Transmitters & IR Receivers are generally used known as photodiodes. The purpose of their usage is for sending and receiving light.When infrared rays fall on the white surface, it’s reflected back and caught by photodiodes which generate some voltage changes. When IR light falls on a black surface, light is absorbed by the black surface and no rays are reflected back, thus the photodiode does not receive any light or rays. When the sensor senses the white surface then Arduino gets 1 as input simultaneously when the black surface is sensed by the sensor 0 is gained as input by Arduino.

Since the Line Follower Robot is undoubtedly the best option for the beginner's project, We have also built it using different development boards other than Arduino. Just check the list out below:

Line Follower Robot using 8051 Microcontroller

Line Follower Robot using Raspberry Pi

Texas MSP430 Launchpad based Line Follower

Simple Line Follower using PIC Microcontroller

Line Follower using ATmega16 AVR Microcontroller

Explanation of the Circuit

The whole Arduino line follower robot can be divided into 3 sections: sensor section, a control section, and driver section.

Applications of Line Follower robot:

Industrial Applications: These types of robots can be used as a replacement for traditional conveyers and represented as automated equipment carriers in the industrial field.

Automobile applications: These robots can be applied as automatic cars running on roads with the help of embedded magnets.

Domestic Applications:

These types of robots belong to the features of performing all household works and can be used at homes for manipulating domestic work like floor cleaning.

Guidance Applications

Guidance Applications Robots are comprised of the features of providing path guidance so that they can be used in public places like shopping malls, museums etc


The automatic Robot Movement

It is purportedly used for long-distance applications

Maintenance of simplicity in building

The fit and forget systems

Highly useful in the home, industrial automation.




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